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Text by:

Joanna C. Scherer,
Anthropologist/Illustrations Researcher
Handbook of North American Indians Project
2003. Revised 2017

Web page designed by:

  • Katherine Hais, Union College
  • Christina Redmond, George Washington University
  • Kristen H. Zeiser, Smith College

This web site was originally constructed with the assistance and support of:

Gayle Yiotis,
Smithsonian Institution,
National Museum of Natural History,
Department of Anthropology,
Repatriation Office

This web site was redesigned in 2017 by:

Jim Kochert
Smithsonian Institution,
National Museum of Natural History,
Information Technology Office,
Web Branch


The research for this website (and publication) took many months of perseverance while the author was working on the Handbook of North American Indians project.

  • Vicki Simon, an intern who later became a contractor, served as my assistant at the Handbook and helped immensely with the research.
  • Other interns who worked on the project, without whom it would have taken months longer to complete, were Catherine J. Adams, Andrea Kehler, Eleni Glekas, Kathy Mancuso, Christina Redmond, and Kristen H. Zeiser.
  • Felicia Pickering, Museum Specialist, Smithsonian Department of Anthropology Museum Support Center, was critical in helping to find many of the artifacts in the Smithsonian collection that matched the manikin's. She discovered the connection between the headdress and the feather trailers.
  • Jane Walsh, Smithsonian, Department of Anthropology, created a computer comparison of the manikin photographs and a photograph of Red Cloud that helped to convince us that the manikins were the same and were representations of Red Cloud.
  • Tom Kavanagh's (1990) early research on manikins at NMNH was also an important resource for this project.
  • In addition, Frank Goodyear, formerly of the Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery, Department of Photographs, kindly shared with me his visual history of Red Cloud (2003) and read a draft of this manuscript, making insightful comments that greatly improved the scope of the work.
  • Raymond DeMallie, Professor of Anthropology at Indiana University, a steadfast colleague, helped on many editorial points, including Siouan history.

To all, my deepest thanks.

The Handbook of North American Indians series under the general editorship of William C. Sturtevant published 15 of its 20 proposed volumes from 1978-2008. They include: California (1978), Northeast (1978), Southwest/Pueblo (1979), Subarctic (1981), Southwest/non-Pueblo (1983), Arctic (1984). Great Basin (1986), History of Indian-White Relations (1988), Northwest Coast (1990), Languages (1996), Plateau (1998), Plains (2001), Southeast (2004), Environment, Origins and Population (2006) and Indians in Contemporary Society (2008). The Handbook project was terminated in December 2007.

An Introduction volume intended as part of the Handbook series but not published by 2008 is currently being edited by Igor Krupnik, Department of Anthropology and will include a history of the project as well as updates on research in the various culture areas and on new fields of the 21st century studies that have not been covered in the published volumes. The proposed publication date is 2020.

- Joanna Cohan Scherer, Emeritus Anthropologist, Smithsonian Institution, 2017 -
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