W.H. Boorne's Photos of the Medicine Lodge Ceremony: The Construction of an Icon
W.H. Boorne Photo

-Boorne's Permission to Photograph-
-The Dance Photographed-
-Analysis of the Photographs-
-Non-Indian Presence-
About the Researcher

Photo Gallery
(Click Figure to View)
Figure 1 - Figure 2 Figure 3 - Figure 4 Figure 5 - Figure 6 Figure 7

By Joanna Cohan Scherer


Aberdeen, Lady

1893 Through Canada with a Kodak. Edinburgh: W.H. White and Company.

Boorne, William Hanson

1887 Copy of Notes, made on the Spot, at a "Sun Dance" of the Blood Indians, at the Blood Indian Reserve, near Fort McLeod, N.W.T. (since "Alberta"), July 1887. Typed manuscript (no date) in Notman Photographic Archives, McCord Museum, McGill University, Montreal.

1893 With the Savages in the Far West. The Canadian Photographic Journal 2(11-12): 372- 373.

1936 Notes Upon the North-West Canadian Indians, after the Riel Rebellion in 1885, and the last annual "Sun Dance." 14 page typed manuscript in Notman Photographic Archives, McCord Museum, McGill University, Montreal.

Boorne, W. Hanson and Ernest Gundry May

1890 Souvenir Albums of Canadian Scenery, From Winnipeg through the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Coast. Calgary, AB.

Blackman, Margaret

1982 “Copying People”: Northwest Coast Native Response to Early Photography. BC Studies 52: 86-112.

Brumbaugh, Lee Philip

1996 Shadow Catchers or Shadow Snatchers? Ethical Issues for Photographers of Contemporary Native Americans. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 20(3):33- 49.

Cole, Douglas

1985 Captured Heritage. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Dempsey, Hugh A.

[1980] W. Hanson Boorne, A Photographic Artist. Manuscript in Notman Photographic Archives, McCord Museum, McGill University, Montreal.

Dorsey, George

1903 The Arapaho Sun Dance: The Ceremony of the Offerings Lodge. Field Museum of Natural History Anthropological Series 4 (Publication 75; Chicago, IL) 1-228.

1910 Sun Dance. In: F. W. Hodge (ed.), Handbook of the American Indians North of Mexico (Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 30. 2 vols. Washington, DC [reprinted: New York; NY 1971: Rowman and Littlefield]), 2:649-652.

Ewers, John C.

1948 Self-torture in the Blood Indian Sun Dance. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 38(5):166-173.

1955 The Horse in Blackfoot Indian Culture; with Comparative Material from Other Western Tribes. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 159. Washington, DC (reprinted: Washington, DC 1980: Smithsonian Institution Press).

Farr, William E.

1984 The Reservation Blackfeet, 1882-1945: A Photographic History of Cultural Survival. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Fleming, Paula Richardson and Judith Luskey

1986 The North American Indians in Early Photographs. New York, NY: Harper & Row Publishing, Inc.

Goetzmann, William H.

1991 The First Americans: Photographs from The Library of Congress. Washington, DC: Starwood Publishing, Inc.

Goldfrank, Esther S.

1945 Changing Configurations in the Social Organization of a Blackfoot Tribe During the Reserve Period (The Blood of Alberta, Canada). American Ethnological Society Monograph 8. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Haas, Jonathan

1996 Power, Objects, and a Voice for Anthropology. Current Anthropology 37(special issue):1-22.

Holman, Nigel

1996a Photography as Social and Economic Exchange: Understanding the Challenges Posed by Photography of Zuni Religious Ceremonies. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 20(3):93-110.

1996b Curating and Controlling Zuni Photographic Images. Curator: The Museum Journal 39(2): 108-122.

Hungry Wolf, Adolf

1977 The Blood People: A Division of the Blackfoot Confederacy. New York, NY: Harper and Row.

Jacknis, Ira

1996 Preface. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 20(3):1-14.

Lippard, Lucy

1992 (ed.) Partial Recall. New York, NY: The New Press.

MacFarlane, David B.

1939 Candid Cameraman of 19th Century Enriches McGill Museum. Montreal (Summer): 17- 19, 60.

Mails, Thomas E.

1978 Sundancing at Rosebud and Pine Ridge. Sioux Falls, SD: Augustana College, The Center for Western Studies.

Maurer, Evan M.

1992 Visions of the People: A Pictorial History of Plains Indian Life. Minneapolis, MN—Seattle, WA: The Minneapolis Institute of Arts—University of Washington Press.

McClintock, Walter

1910 The Old North Trail or Life, Legends and Religion of the Blackfeet Indians. London: MacMillan and Co.

McLean, Rev. John

1889 The Blackfoot Sun-Dance. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute, 3rd series, 6(1887- 1888): 231-237.

Powers, Willow Roberts

1996 Images Across Boundaries: History, Use, and Ethics of Photographs of American Indians. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 20(3): 129-136.

Samek, Hana

1987 The Blackfoot Confederacy 1880-1920: A Comparative Study of Canadian and U.S. Indian Policy. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

Scherer, Joanna Cohan

1973 Indians: The Great Photographs that reveal North American Indian Life, 1847-1929, from the unique collection of the Smithsonian Institution (in collaboration with Jean B. Walker). New York, NY: Crown, Ridge Press (reprinted by Bonanza Books, Crown distributors, 1982 with corrections).

1981 Historical Photographs of the Subarctic. A Resource for Future Research. Arctic Anthropology 12(1):1-16.

1988 The Public Faces of Sarah Winnemucca. Cultural Anthropology 3(2): 178-204.

Silversides, Brock V.

1994 The Face Pullers: Photographing Native Canadians 1871-1939. Saskatoon: Fifth House Ltd.

Stevenson, Matilda Coxe

1894 The Sia. 11th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for the Years 1889- 1890 (Washington, DC), 3-157.

Sullivan, Martin

1997 Cultural Property Issues: The Unknowns and the Unknowables. Anthropology Newsletter 38(1):1, 4-5.

Thomas, David Hurst

1998 Scholarship, Censorship and Sensitivity. Anthropology Newsletter 39(1):9.

Wright, Barton, Marnie Gaede, Marc Gaede

1986 The Hopi Photographs: Kate Cory 1905-1912. Albuquerque, NM: Chaco Press (reprinted: Albuquerque, NM 1988: University of New Mexico Press).